What is the actual Fiqah?

Text of Hadeeth:

Abu Mu’sa al-Ashari(radhiyallahu anhu) said:

The Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said,The example of guidance and knowledge with which Allah has sent me is like abundant rain falling on the earth, some of which was fertile soil that absorbed rain water and brought forth vegetation and grass in abundance. (And) another portion of it was hard and held the rain water and Allah benefited the people with it and they utilized it for drinking, making their animals drink from it and for irrigation of the land for cultivation. (And) a portion of it was barren which could neither hold the water nor bring forth vegetation (then that land gave no benefits). The first is the example of the person who comprehends Allah’s religion and gets benefit (from the knowledge) which Allah has revealed through me and learns and then teaches others. The last example is that of a person who does not care for it and does not take Allah’s guidance revealed through me (He is like that barren land.) - (Saheeh Bukhari (79), Saheeh Muslim (15/2282))

Understanding from hadeeth:

Sheikh Zubair AliZai Rahimahullah writes:

  • Two kinds of people are in benefit:

    • People who learn the Qur’an & hadeeth and teach them to others and
    • People who spend their lives according to the religion of Islam based on the understanding from the Qur’an and hadeeth.
  • The scholar (a’alim) of correct Aqeedah (belief) has a higher stature than that of a common man, on the condition that scholar practices the teachings of the Book & Sunnah, he doesn’t show off or is greedy.
  • To help the Muslim brothers and to be available for their needs is a sign of the people of Eemaan.
  • The meaning of ‘Tafaqquh’ is the practice on the Qur’an, hadeeth & the Ijmaa(consensus) based on the understanding of the Salaf*.

Some of the people from the Ahl ur-Ra’i** who oppose the Book and sunnah have started considering themselves Faqeeh . However, they are far away from Fiqh and tafaqquh.

Imaam Ali ibn al-Madeeni rahimahullah who was the teacher of Imaam Bukhari, said:

The comprehension of the hadeeth and its Tafaqquh is half the knowledge and the recognition of Asma’ ur-Rijaal is the remaining half. (al-Muhaddith al-Faasil bayn ar-Raawi wa al-Waa’i p.32, h. 222, its chain is saheeh).

There was a faqeeh named Waleed ibn Hammad al-Luluwee who has been mentioned by Ibn Hibban in his book ‘at-Thiqaat’ (9/226).

Abu Ja’far Muhammad ibn Ubayd ibn Utbah al-Koofee (thiqah, sudooq) said about Waleed:

He used to cry a lot. He was a truthful faqeeh and never used to give fatwa from his opinion. (Saheeh Abi Awaanah v.1 p.9 h.12, its chain is saheeh)

Pity is on those people who consider themselves Faqeeh and give fatwas based on their opinion knowing fully well that it is opposing the Qur’an and hadeeth.

It has come in a saheeh hadeeth that when the Prophet(sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) sat between the two sajdahs (prostrations), he would say:

رَبِّ اغْفِرْ لِي رَبِّ اغْفِرْ لِي

“O Allah forgive me! O Allah forgive me!”. (Sunan Abi Dawood 874; Sunan an-Nasa’ee 1070,1146; Musnad Abi Dawood at-Tayalisee 416;its chain is saheeh)

Note: The Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) is completely free from sins. He used to recite these duas to teach the Muslim ummah or the meaning of this dua could be “O Allah make a barrier between myself and sins”.

The tabi’ee Imaam Makhool rahimahullah who was considered as truthful by the majority of the muhadditheen(hadeeth scholars) used to recite the following dua between the prostrations:

اللَّهُمَّ اغْفِرْ لِي،وَارْحَمْنِي،وَاجْبُرْنِي، وَارْزُقْنِي

“O Allah forgive me, have mercy on me, support me & provide for me” (Musannif ibn Abee Shaybah, new manuscript v.2 p.534 h. 8922;its chain is saheeh)

Contrary to this, in the book ‘al-Jami’ as-Sagheer’ attributed to Muhammad ibn al-Hassan ibn Farqad as-Shaybanee, it is mentioned:

“And like that, he should be silent between the prostrations”.(p.88)

Commenting on this, Abdul Hayy al-Lucknowee said:

This opposes what has come in the saheeh hadeeth. (Sharh al-Jami as-Sagheer p.88)

* Salaf means the Pious Predecessors

** Ahl ur-Ra’i – generally referred to as the People of Opinion

Author: Hafiz Zubair Alizai Rahimahullah

Translated by: taalibeilm via (sheikhzubairalizai dot wordpress dot com)

Reference: Sheikh Zubair Alizai`s book Azwah Al-Masabeeh Fee Tahqeeq Mishqaat Al-Masabeeh (Hadees #150)

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